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SCI: Science (2010)
G: Guidance (2003)
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Earth and Space Science I
Integrated Chemistry - Physics
Anatomy and Physiology
Now displaying 1-8 of 8
SCI.B.1 2010 - Cellular Chemistry
Describe the basic molecular structure and function of the four major categories of organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids) essential to cellular function.(B.1.1)Describe how work done in cells is performed by a variety of organic molecules—especially proteins, whose functions depend on the sequence of their monomers and the consequent shape of the molecule. (B.1.2, B.1.3)
Describe the structure of the major categories of organic compounds that make up living organisms in terms of their building blocks and the small number of chemical elements (i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur) from which they are composed.
Understand that the shape of a molecule determines its role in the many different types of cellular processes (e.g., metabolism, homeostasis, growth and development, and heredity) and understand that the majority of these processes involve proteins that act as enzymes.
Explain and give examples of how the function and differentiation of cells is influenced by their external environment (e.g., temperature, acidity and the concentration of certain molecules) and changes in these conditions may affect how a cell functions.
SCI.B.2 2010 - Cellular Structure
Describe features that are common to all cells and contrast those with distinctive features that allow cells to carry out specific functions.
Describe features common to all cells that are essential for growth and survival. Explain their functions.
Describe the structure of a cell membrane and explain how it regulates the transport of materials into and out of the cell and prevents harmful materials from entering the cell.
Explain that most cells contain mitochondria (the key sites of cellular respiration), where stored chemical energy is converted into useable energy for the cell. Explain that some cells, including many plant cells, contain chloroplasts (the key sites of photosynthesis) where the energy of light is captured for use in chemical work.
Explain that all cells contain ribosomes (the key sites for protein synthesis), where genetic material is decoded in order to form unique proteins.
Explain that cells use proteins to form structures (e.g., cilia, flagella), which allow them to carry out specific functions (e.g., movement, adhesion and absorption).
Investigate a variety of different cell types and relate the proportion of different organelles within these cells to their functions.
SCI.B.3 2010 - Matter Cycles and Energy Transfer
Describe how the sun’s energy is captured and used to construct sugar molecules that can be used as a form of energy or serve as building blocks of organic molecules. (B.3.1, B.3.2, B.3.3) Diagram how matter and energy cycle through an ecosystem. (B.3.4, B.3.5)
Describe how some organisms capture the sun’s energy through the process of photosynthesis by converting carbon dioxide and water into high-energy compounds and releasing oxygen.
Describe how most organisms can combine and recombine the elements contained in sugar molecules into a variety of biologically essential compounds by utilizing the energy from cellular respiration.
Recognize and describe that metabolism consists of all of the biochemical reactions that occur inside cells, which include the production, modification, transport, and exchange of materials that are required for the maintenance of life.
Describe how matter cycles through an ecosystem by way of food chains and food webs and how organisms convert that matter into a variety of organic molecules to be used in part in their own cellular structures.
Describe how energy from the sun flows through an ecosystem by way of food chains and food webs and how only a small portion of that energy is used by individual organisms while the majority is lost as heat.
SCI.B.4 2010 - Interdependence
Describe the relationship between living and nonliving components of ecosystems and describe how that relationship is in flux due to natural changes and human actions.
Explain that the amount of life environments can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen and minerals and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the remains of dead organisms.
Describe how human activities and natural phenomena can change the flow and of matter and energy in an ecosystem and how those changes impact other species.
Describe the consequences of introducing non-native species into an ecosystem and identify the impact it may have on that ecosystem.
Describe how climate, the pattern of matter and energy flow, the birth and death of new organisms, and the interaction between those organisms contribute to the long-term stability of an ecosystem.
SCI.B.5 2010 - Molecular Basis of Heredity
Describe the basic structure of DNA and how this structure enables DNA to function as the hereditary molecule that directs the production of RNA and proteins. (B.5.1, B.5.2, B.5.3)
Describe the relationship between chromosomes and DNA along with their basic structure and function.
Describe how hereditary information passed from parents to offspring is encoded in the regions of DNA molecules called genes.
Describe the process by which DNA directs the production of protein within a cell.
Explain how the unique shape and activity of each protein is determined by the sequence of its amino acids.
Understand that proteins are responsible for the observable traits of an organism and for most of the functions within an organism.
Recognize that traits can be structural, physiological or behavioral and can include readily observable characteristics at the organismal level or less recognizable features at the molecular and cellular level.
SCI.B.6 2010 - Cellular Reproduction
Explain the processes (i.e., mitosis and meiosis) by which new cells are formed from existing cells and how in multicellular organisms groups of cells cooperate to perform essential functions within the organisms. (B.6.1, B.6.2, B.6.3)Explain the cellular processes that occur to generate natural genetic variations between parents and offspring. (B.6.4, B.6.5)
Describe the process of mitosis and explain that this process ordinarily results in daughter cells with a genetic make-up identical to the parent cells.
Understand that most cells of a multicellular organism contain the same genes but develop from a single cell (e.g., a fertilized egg) in different ways due to differential gene expression.
Explain that in multicellular organisms the zygote produced during fertilization undergoes a series of cell divisions that lead to clusters of cells that go on to specialize and become the organism’s tissues and organs.
Describe and model the process of meiosis and explain the relationship between the genetic make-up of the parent cell and the daughter cells (i.e., gametes).
Explain how in sexual reproduction that crossing over, independent assortment and random fertilization result in offspring that are genetically different from the parents.
SCI.B.7 2010 - Genetics
Explain how the genetic information from parents determines the unique characteristics of their offspring.
Distinguish between dominant and recessive alleles and determine the phenotype that would result from the different possible combinations of alleles in an offspring.
Describe dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, incompletely dominant, multiply allelic and polygenic traits and illustrate their inheritance patterns over multiple generations.
Determine the likelihood of the appearance of a specific trait in an offspring given the genetic make-up of the parents.
Explain the process by which a cell copies its DNA and identify factors that can damage DNA and cause changes in its nucleotide sequence.
Explain and demonstrate how inserting, substituting or deleting segments of a DNA molecule can alter a gene, how that gene is then passed to every cell that develops from it and how the results may be beneficial, harmful or have little or no effect on the organism.
SCI.B.8 2010 - Evolution
Describe how biochemical, fossil, anatomical, developmental, and genetic findings are used to determine relationships among organisms and how those relationships are then used to produce modern classification systems. (B.8.1, B.8.2, B.8.3, B.8.4) Describe how modern evolutionary theory provides an explanation of the history of life on earth and the similarities among organisms that exist today. (B.8.5, B.8.6, B.8.7)
Explain how anatomical and molecular similarities among organisms suggests that life on earth began as simple, one-celled organisms about 4 billion years ago and multicellular organisms evolved later.
Explain how organisms are classified and named based on their evolutionary relationships into taxonomic categories.
Use anatomical and molecular evidence to establish evolutionary relationships among organisms.
Understand that molecular evidence supports the anatomical evidence for these evolutionary relationships and provides additional information about the order in which different lines of descent branched.
Describe how organisms with beneficial traits are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on their genetic information due to genetic variations, environmental forces and reproductive pressures.
Explain how genetic variation within a population (i.e., a species) can be attributed to mutations as well as random assortments of existing genes.
Describe the modern scientific theory of the origins and history of life on earth and evaluate the evidence that supports it.
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